President: Abdul Hamid (2013)
Prime Minister: Sheikh Hasina (2009)
Population (2014 est.): 166,280,712 (growth rate: 1.6%); birth rate: 21.61/1000; infant mortality rate: 45.67/1000; life expectancy: 70.65
Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Dhaka, 15.391 million
Other large cities: Chittagong, 5.239 million; Khulna, 1.781 million; Rajshahi 932,000
Monetary unit: Taka
Bangladesh, on the northern coast of the Bay of Bengal, is surrounded by India, with a small common border with Myanmar in the southeast. The country is low-lying riverine land traversed by the many branches and tributaries of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Tropical monsoons and frequent floods and cyclones inflict heavy damage in the delta region.
In 1576, Bengal became part of the Mogul Empire, and the majority of East Bengalis converted to Islam. Bengal was ruled by British India from 1757 until Britain withdrew in 1947, and Pakistan was founded out of the two predominantly Muslim regions of the Indian subcontinent. For almost 25 years after independence from Britain, its history was part of Pakistan's.
West Pakistan and East Pakistan were united by religion (Islam), but their peoples were separated by culture, physical features, and 1,000 miles of Indian territory.
Liberation War of Bangladesh
The Bengali population was angered when Prime Minister-elect Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was prevented from taking the office. Civil disobedience erupted across East Pakistan, with calls for independence. Mujib addressed a pro-independence rally of nearly 2 million people in Dhaka on 7 March 1971, where he said, "This time the struggle is for our freedom. This time the struggle is for our independence." The flag of Bangladesh was raised for the first time on 23 March, Pakistan's Republic Day. During the night of 25 March, the Pakistani military junta led by Yahya Khan launched Operation Searchlight (a sustained military assault on East Pakistan). The Pakistan Army arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and flew him away to Karachi. Mujib, however, before his arrest proclaimed the Independence of Bangladesh at midnight on 26 March which led the Bangladesh Liberation War to break out within hours. The Pakistan Army continued to massacre Bengali students, intellectuals, politicians, civil servants and military defectors in the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, while the Mukti Bahiniand other Bengali guerilla forces created strong resistance throughout the country. During the war, an estimated 300,000 to three million people were killed and several million people took shelter in neighboring India. Global public opinion turned against Pakistan as news of the atrocities spread; the Bangladesh movement was supported by prominent political and cultural figures in the West, including Ted Kennedy, George Harrison, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Victoria Ocampo and André Malraux.The Concert for Bangladesh was held at Madison Square Garden in New York City to raise funds for Bangladeshi refugees. The first major benefit concert in history, it was organized by Harrison and Indian Bengali sitarist Ravi Shankar.
During the Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali nationalists declared independence and formed the Mukti Bahini (the Bangladeshi National Liberation Army). The Provisional Government of Bangladesh was established on 17 April 1971, converting the 469 elected members of the Pakistani national assembly and East Pakistani provincial assembly into the Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh. The provisional government issued a proclamation that became the country's interim constitution and declared "equality, human dignity and social justice" as its fundamental principles. Due to Mujib's detention, the acting president was Syed Nazrul Islam, while Tajuddin Ahmad was Bangladesh's first prime minister. The military wing of the provisional government was the Bangladesh Forces that included Mukti Bahini and other Bengali guerilla forces. Led by General M. A. G. Osmani and eleven sector commanders, the forces held the countryside during the war and conducted wide-ranging guerrilla operations against Pakistani forces. As a result, almost the entire country except the capital Dhaka was liberated by Bangladesh Forces by late November. This led the Pakistan Army to attack neighboring India's western front on 2 December. India retaliated in both the western and eastern fronts. With a joint ground advance by Bangladeshi and Indian forces, coupled with air strikes by both India and the small Bengali air contingent, the capital Dhaka was liberated from Pakistani occupation in mid-December. During the last phase of the war, the Soviet Union and the United States dispatched naval forces to the Bay of Bengal in a Cold War standoff. The nine-months long war ended with the surrender of Pakistani armed forces to the Bangladesh-India Allied Forces on 16 December 1971.Under international pressure, Pakistan released Rahman from imprisonment on 8 January 1972 and he was flown by the British Royal Air Force to a million-strong homecoming in Dhaka. Remaining Indian troops were withdrawn by 12 March 1972, three months after the war ended.
The cause of Bangladeshi self-determination was recognized around the world. By August 1972, the new state was recognized by 86 countries. Pakistan recognized Bangladesh in 1974 after pressure from most of the Muslim countries
and largest city
and national language
|Syed Mahmud Hossain|
|Formation and independence|
|26 March 1971|
|16 December 1971|
|147,570 km2(56,980 sq mi) (92nd)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2011 census
|1,106/km2(2,864.5/sq mi) (10th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|Gini (2017)|| 32.4|
|HDI (2017)|| 0.608|
medium · 136th
|Currency||Taka (৳) (BDT)|
|Time zone||UTC+6 (BST)|
|ISO 3166 code||BD|
The Formation of an Independent Bangladesh
First parliamentary era
The constituent assembly adopted Bangladesh's constitution on 4 November 1972, establishing a secular, multiparty parliamentary democracy. The new constitution included references to socialism, and Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman nationalized major industries in 1972. A major reconstruction and rehabilitation program was launched. The Awami League won the country's first general election in 1973, securing a large majority in the Jatiyo Sangshad. Bangladesh joined the Commonwealth of Nations, the UN, the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement, and Rahman strengthened ties with India. Amid growing agitation by the opposition National Awami Party and National Socialist Party, he became increasingly authoritarian. Rahman amended the constitution, giving himself more emergency powers (including the suspension of fundamental rights). The Bangladesh famine of 1974 also worsened the political situation.
Presidential era and coups (1975–1991)
In January 1975, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman introduced one-party socialist rule under BAKSAL. Rahman banned all newspapers except four state-owned publications, and amended the constitution to increase his power. He was assassinated during a coup on 15 August 1975.
Martial law was declared, and the presidency passed to the usurper Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad for four months. Ahmad is widely regarded as a quisling by Bangladeshis.
Tajuddin Ahmad, the nation's first prime minister, and four other independence leaders were assassinated on 4 November 1975. Chief Justice Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayem was installed as president by the military on 6 November 1975. Bangladesh was governed by a military junta led by the Chief Martial Law Administrator for three years.
In 1977, the army chief Ziaur Rahman became president. he reinstated multiparty politics, privatized industries and newspapers, established BEPZA and held the country's second general election in 1979. A semi-presidential system evolved, with the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) governing until 1982. But he was assassinated in 1981.
Vice President Abdus Sattar. Sattar received 65.5 percent of the vote in the 1981 presidential election and elected President.
After a year in office, in the 1982 President Abdus Sattar handover the power to army chief Hussain Muhammad Ershad.On March 24,The army chief of staff, took control as the President. He became the country's de facto leader and assumed the presidency in 1983.
He lifted martial law in 1986 and he Organised a political party called Jatiyo Party with four successive prime ministers (Ataur Rahman Khan, Mizanur Rahman Chowdhury, Moudud Ahmed and Kazi Zafar Ahmed)
General elections were held in 1986 and 1988. But the opposition BNP boycotted the elections. Ershad pursued administrative decentralization, dividing the country into 64 districts, and he announced Islam the state religion.
In 1990 he resigned on December 6,and Chief Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed led the country's first caretaker government as part of the transition to parliamentary rule.
Current parliamentary era (1991–present)
After the 1991 general election, the twelfth amendment to the constitution restored the parliamentary republic and Begum Khaleda She became Bangladesh's first female prime minister, led a BNP government from 1990 to 1996. In February 1996, a general election was held which was boycotted by all opposition parties giving a 300 (of 300) seat victory for BNP. This election was deemed illegitimate, so a system of a caretaker government was introduced to oversee the transfer of power and a new election was held in June 1996, overseen by Justice Muhammad Habibur Rahman, the first Chief Adviser of Bangladesh. The Awami League won the seventh general election, marking its leader Sheikh Hasina's first term as Prime Minister. Hasina's first term was highlighted by the Chittagong Hill Tracts Peace Accord and a Ganges water-sharing treaty with India.
The second caretaker government, led by Chief Adviser Justice Latifur Rahman, oversaw the 2001 Bangladeshi general election which returned Begum Zia and the BNP to power.
In 2006, at the end of the term of the BNP administration, there was widespread political unrest related to the handover of power to a caretaker government. As such, the Bangladeshi military urged President Iajuddin Ahmed to impose a state of emergency and a caretaker government, led by technocrat Fakhruddin Ahmed, was installed. Emergency rule lasted for two years, during which time investigations into members of both Awami League and BNP were conducted, including their leaders Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia. In 2008 the ninth general election saw a return to power for Sheikh Hasina and the Awami League led Grand Alliance in a landslide victory. In 2010, the Supreme Court ruled martial law illegal and affirmed secular principles in the constitution. The following year, the Awami League abolished the caretaker-government system.
Citing the lack of caretaker government the 2014 general election was boycotted by the BNP and other opposition parties, giving the Awami League a decisive victory. Despite the controversy Hasina went on to form a government which saw her return for a third term as Prime Minister.
In 2018, the general election, The Awami League won 259 out of 300 seats and Sheikh Hasina becoming the longest serving prime minister in Bangladeshi history.
সমসাময়িক সংসদীয় সময়কাল (১৯৯১-বর্তমান)
বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দলের নেত্রী ও প্রয়াত রাষ্ট্রপতি জিয়ার স্ত্রী বেগম খালেদা জিয়া ১৯৯১ হতে ১৯৯৬ খ্রিস্টাব্দ পর্যন্ত প্রধানমন্ত্রীর দায়িত্ব পালন করেন। শেখ মুজিবের কন্যা শেখ হাসিনা ১৯৯৬ হতে ২০০১ খ্রিস্টাব্দ পর্যন্ত আওয়ামী লীগের নেত্রী হিসাবে প্রধানমন্ত্রীর দায়িত্ব পালন করেন। দারিদ্র ও দুর্নীতি সত্ত্বেও বাংলাদেশ বর্তমান বৈশ্বিক প্রেক্ষাপটে একটি গণতান্ত্রিক ও প্রগতিশীল রাষ্ট্র হিসাবে তার অবস্থান সমুন্নত রেখেছে।
২০০১ খ্রিস্টাব্দের জাতীয় সংসদ নির্বাচনে বিশাল জয়ের মধ্য দিয়ে বাংলাদেশ জাতীয়তাবাদী দল (বিএনপি) সরকার গঠন করে এবং খালেদা জিয়া পুনরায় প্রধানমন্ত্রী হন। তিনি ২০০১ থেকে ২০০৬ খ্রিস্টাব্দ মেয়াদে প্রধানমন্ত্রীর দায়িত্ব পালন করেন। অতঃপর নানা নাটকীয় পালা বদলের মধ্য দিয়ে প্রধান উপদেষ্টা হিসেবে বাংলাদেশ কেন্দ্রীয় ব্যাংকের সাবেক গভর্নর ফখরুদ্দিন আহমদ তত্ত্বাবধায়ক সরকার গঠন করেন। এই সরকার প্রায় দুই বৎসর ক্ষমতায় থাকে এবং সেনা সমর্থিত সরকার হিসাবে সমালোচিত হয়। তবে ফখরুদ্দিন সরকার ২০০৮ খ্রিস্টাব্দে জাতীয় সংসদ নির্বাচন অনুষ্ঠান করে। এই নির্বাচনে বিজয়ী হয়ে আওয়ামী লীগ-নেতৃত্বাধীন রাজনৈতিক মহাজোট সরকার গঠন করে এবং শেখ হাসিনা পুনরায় প্রধানমন্ত্রী হিসাবে দায়িত্ব লাভ করেন। এরপর ২০১৪ সালে ও ২০১৮ সালের সংসদীয় নির্বাচনে পুনরায় নির্বাচনে বিজয়ী হয়ে আওয়ামী লীগ-নেতৃত্বাধীন রাজনৈতিক মহাজোট সরকার গঠন করে।
|Barisal Division||Barisal||1 January 1993||13,297||8,325,666||626|
|Chittagong Division||Chittagong||1 January 1829||33,771||28,423,019||841|
|Dhaka Division||Dhaka||1 January 1829||20,593||36,054,418||1,751|
|Khulna Division||Khulna||1 October 1960||22,272||15,687,759||704|
|Mymensingh Division||Mymensingh||14 September 2015||10,584||11,370,000||1,074|
|Rajshahi Division||Rajshahi||1 January 1829||18,197||18,484,858||1,015|
|Rangpur Division||Rangpur||25 January 2010||16,317||15,787,758||960|
|Sylhet Division||Sylhet||1 August 1995||12,596||9,910,219||780|